Forklift Starters and Alternators - Today's starter motor is typically a permanent-magnet composition or a series-parallel wound direct current electrical motor together with a starter solenoid installed on it. When current from the starting battery is applied to the solenoid, mainly through a key-operated switch, the solenoid engages a lever which pushes out the drive pinion that is situated on the driveshaft and meshes the pinion utilizing the starter ring gear that is found on the flywheel of the engine.
As soon as the starter motor starts to turn, the solenoid closes the high-current contacts. When the engine has started, the solenoid has a key operated switch that opens the spring assembly to be able to pull the pinion gear away from the ring gear. This action causes the starter motor to stop. The starter's pinion is clutched to its driveshaft by an overrunning clutch. This permits the pinion to transmit drive in only one direction. Drive is transmitted in this manner through the pinion to the flywheel ring gear. The pinion remains engaged, for example for the reason that the operator fails to release the key once the engine starts or if there is a short and the solenoid remains engaged. This actually causes the pinion to spin independently of its driveshaft.
The actions mentioned above would prevent the engine from driving the starter. This significant step stops the starter from spinning very fast that it will fly apart. Unless adjustments were done, the sprag clutch arrangement will prevent making use of the starter as a generator if it was used in the hybrid scheme mentioned prior. Usually a regular starter motor is designed for intermittent use that would prevent it being used as a generator.
Thus, the electrical components are intended to be able to function for approximately under 30 seconds to avoid overheating. The overheating results from very slow dissipation of heat because of ohmic losses. The electrical components are designed to save weight and cost. This is the reason the majority of owner's manuals for vehicles suggest the driver to pause for at least ten seconds after each and every 10 or 15 seconds of cranking the engine, when trying to start an engine which does not turn over instantly.
During the early 1960s, this overrunning-clutch pinion arrangement was phased onto the market. Previous to that time, a Bendix drive was used. The Bendix system operates by placing the starter drive pinion on a helically cut driveshaft. As soon as the starter motor begins spinning, the inertia of the drive pinion assembly enables it to ride forward on the helix, thus engaging with the ring gear. Once the engine starts, the backdrive caused from the ring gear enables the pinion to surpass the rotating speed of the starter. At this moment, the drive pinion is forced back down the helical shaft and therefore out of mesh with the ring gear.
The development of Bendix drive was made in the 1930's with the overrunning-clutch design known as the Bendix Folo-Thru drive, made and introduced in the 1960s. The Folo-Thru drive has a latching mechanism along with a set of flyweights inside the body of the drive unit. This was better as the typical Bendix drive utilized so as to disengage from the ring once the engine fired, even though it did not stay running.
Once the starter motor is engaged and starts turning, the drive unit is forced forward on the helical shaft by inertia. It then becomes latched into the engaged position. As soon as the drive unit is spun at a speed higher than what is attained by the starter motor itself, for example it is backdriven by the running engine, and afterward the flyweights pull outward in a radial manner. This releases the latch and allows the overdriven drive unit to become spun out of engagement, hence unwanted starter disengagement could be avoided previous to a successful engine start.
Click to Download the pdf